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pictures of hair follicle tumors in dogs

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Regardless of the type (sweat, hair, or sebaceous) diagnosis is made by fine needle aspiration, biopsy, and/or initial surgical removal and histopathology. Most commonly, they appear as one or more red lumps in the skin or underlying soft tissues. They appear more like an inflammatory reaction than a tumor and are generally treated with steroids. Malignant tumors can spread and cause harm to the animal. Surgical removal followed by radiation is an option, as well as radiation prior to surgical removal. Veterinary cancer specialists may recommend new types of treatments that may help manage difficult cases. Canine basal cell tumors most commonly develop in middle-aged to older dogs. These tumors can develop anywhere on the body, but they occur most frequently on the back, tail, and legs. They seldom spread to other sites but tend to return after surgical removal. Apocrine gland adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors of sweat glands. Basal cell tumors are common in dogs and most are benign. Benign tumors have few blood vessels, whereas most malignant tumors have many blood vessels. Sometimes they can grow outward with a surface like a wart. A cause for why these develop is not known for sure. When present on the lips or in the mouth, the tumors appear as dark to light gray or pink raised lumps. Some tumors grow slowly, whereas others are more likely to spread or return within 20 weeks of surgical removal. These tumors usually invade into surrounding tissues. Malignant histiocytosis is the other form of disease that affects Bernese Mountain dogs. This form of histiocytosis does not typically affect any internal organs but can cause dogs to appear unsightly. Males are affected more often than females. Malignant fibrous histiocytomas are rare in dogs. Disorders of the Liver and Gallbladder in Dogs. Laser surgery and cryosurgery (freezing) are other options, but because fecal incontinence is very common following extensive surgery involving the sphincter, this option is used only when tumors cannot be removed using regular surgical techniques. Last full review/revision Jun 2018 | Content last modified Jun 2018, © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. As these tumors grow, they extend deeper into the skin and surrounding tissue. Shetland Sheepdogs and Beagles are most at risk for liposarcomas. They most commonly develop on the head and forelimbs in middle-aged or older dogs. They occur mostly on the skin of the face. They can mimic lipomas; therefore, visual signs alone cannot establish a diagnosis. Tumors arising under the skin surface may look lumpy. Breeds that have been shown to be predisposed to hair follicle tumors are Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, German Shepherds, Cocker Spaniels, Irish Setters, English Springer Spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers and Standard Poodles. When tumors are multiple, or surgical removal is not feasible, radiation treatment is considered. The tumors which are the most aggressive are often the least differentiated. The most important thing for you to do is stay alert to any lumps on your pooch and let your veterinarian know about them; that way, they can determine if treatment is necessary. Hair follicle tumors are not pretty to have to deal with, but are typically not malignant or an indicator of cancer in dogs. Distinguishing a benign tumor from a cancerous tumor requires specialized knowledge and laboratory equipment. These tumors are generally not responsive to castration or to estrogen treatment. There are several different types of hair follicle tumors, one that can be serious, so it is important to have any skin growths or tumors checked through a biopsy to ensure they are benign. Generally, these are multiple tumors. Other tumors can be aggressive and spread rapidly. Folliculitis. In the third stage, the newly cancerous melanocytes move upward in the hair follicle, leave it, and enter the surrounding epidermis to establish tumors that then spread deeper. "Narrow" margins describe tumor cells close to—but not at—the edge, indicating that tumor cells could possibly be left behind at the surgical site. Dermoid cysts are congenital (the animal is born with them). Surgical removal is usually the first choice when the disease is limited to a single tumor. Lipomas are one of the most common benign tumors of the skin in dogs. Fibromas resemble collagenous nevi or skin tags. The tumors often spread to local lymph nodes and other organs. When tumors have spread from other areas of the body to the skin, the primary tumor usually grows and spreads quickly and the outlook for a positive outcome is guarded to poor. In most cases, surgery requires removal of the mass and tissues surrounding it, including involved lymph nodes. The first is canine mucous membrane papillomatosis, which primarily affects young dogs. Surgical removal is the best treatment. The trusted provider of veterinary information since 1955, Soft Tissue Giant Cell Tumors (Fibrous Histiocytomas), Tumors Originating Outside the Skin (Metastatic Tumors), Dermatitis and Dermatologic Problems in Dogs, Congenital and Inherited Skin Disorders in Dogs, Abscesses Between the Toes (Interdigital Furunculosis) in Dogs, Hyperpigmentation (Acanthosis Nigricans) in Dogs, Mite Infestation (Mange, Acariasis, Scabies) in Dogs, Whole-body Disorders that Affect the Skin in Dogs. Occasionally they are arranged in a line. Trichoepitheliomas are small benign tumors, often found along a cat's back, shoulders, flank, tail or limbs. of Malherbe) are hair matrical tumors, seen in dogs. Because skin tumors are so diverse, identifying them should be left to a veterinarian. If, during surgery, biopsy of a sample of the removed tissue suggests that the tumor extends beyond the initial edge of the surgery, additional surrounding tissue will be removed. Because of this, and because it is important to identify whether the tumor is cancerous, they should be removed. These tumors frequently spread to other organs and do so early in the course of the disease. Sebaceous gland adenomas are common in older dogs. Multiple warts appear on mucous membranes in the mouth from the lips to (occasionally) the esophagus and on the eyelid and adjacent haired skin. Affected dogs may be isolated from susceptible ones, but with the long incubation period (months), many are likely to have been exposed before the problem is recognized. Larger tumors commonly form ulcers and bleed. In addition, chemotherapy and radiation treatment may also be prescribed. Less frequently, they appear as a poorly defined bruise. Sebaceous cysts are common types of skin cysts that contain sebum, a thick, oily material normally found in the skin around the hair follicles. A rare variant of this tumor, diffuse lipomatosis, has been identified in Dachshunds, in which virtually the entire skin is affected, resulting in prominent folds in the skin on the neck and trunk. Skin gland, hair follicle, and sebaceous gland tumors are more commonly found to be benign. Canine histiocytomas are normally considered benign tumors; most resolve spontaneously and without treatment within 2 to 3 months. However, they are more frequently solitary and develop on older dogs. Liposarcomas are rare tumors in all domestic animals. They may spread to other organs, including lymph nodes and the lungs. It is uncommon for these tumors to spread to other organs. In this regard, the presence of an underlying skin disorder may play a major role in the development of folliculitis… The skin bumps may come and go and do not typically cause itching. However, dogs that develop one such tumor are prone to develop more at other sites. Many breeds are predisposed, especially Wirehaired Pointing Griffons and Kerry Blue and Wheaten Terriers. Surgery to remove these tumors is the treatment of choice. The larger the tumor, the more likely it is to be malignant. Tumors are usually small lumps or bumps, but they also can occur as hairless, discolored patches, rashes, or nonhealing ulcers. Recurrence is common, so follow up radiation treatment may be required. However, this disease may also be secondary to whole-body, internal diseases, such as canine malignant lymphoma. Thus, all mast cell tumors are normally treated as at least potential malignancies. Newer drugs and chemotherapy may also help. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice. Generally, it is difficult to identify the primary tumor based on the signs in the skin. Pilomatricomas are small and are often found on the trunk of middle-aged dogs. Overview: Dog Skin Tumors. For most tumors, surgical removal is the most effective option. Basal cell carcinomas are less common in dogs than in cats. Wide surgical removal is the treatment of choice for angiosarcomas below the skin surface. These cysts will make a white, slightly granular material. The tumors occur in male dogs three times more often than in females. How they are formed is not known. Treatment is by surgical removal, though this may be difficult if the cysts are diffuse. Chemotherapy for sarcomas has become a more common method of treatment. The appearance of mast cell tumors can vary widely. Blood vessel (vascular) tumors of the skin and soft tissues are growths that closely resemble blood vessels. The disease progresses slowly or moderately. In double coated breeds, the risk of developing hair follicle cysts, tumors and ingrown hair is higher. In addition, chemotherapy and radiation treatment may also be provided. You should not to attempt to remove the cysts by squeezing them because this can spread the cyst contents into the surrounding tissues. Collagenous nevi are benign collections of fibrous proteins known as collagen. They occur in middle-aged or older dogs. Infrequently, some may grow too large to be surgically removed. They appear as firm, oval masses, 0.4 to 2.75 inches (1 to 7 centimeters) in diameter that are compact but gradually grow. Sebaceous gland adenocarcinomas are a rare malignant form of sebaceous gland tumor. Since this type of cancer is thought to be associated with sun radiation exposure; the ventral parts of body or underside are more commonly affected, as radiation reflects from ground up to the dog. Malignant tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to distant organs. Many treatments for skin lymphosarcoma have been tried, though no treatment has been shown to be completely successful. This is a benign tumor of cells that differentiate toward the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. Some dogs grow new tumors periodically. Although chemotherapy may improve the quality and prolong the life of an affected dog, it is seldom a complete cure. It is important to remove all of the tumor during the first surgery, because sarcomas that recur have a greater potential to invade local tissue, and they may also spread to other parts of the body. Surgical removal of the tumors may be used to remove extremely large or ulcerated tumors that have become secondarily infected. The legs and trunk are most commonly affected. We do not control or have responsibility for the content of any third-party site. Surgery is the treatment of choice for females but may need to be repeated because recurrence is common in females. Pilomatricomas are hair follicle tumors that appear similar to trichoepitheliomas, but their cystic contents are often gritty. Most dermoid cysts are multiple and contain fully formed hair shafts. Benign tumors are most common on the trunk of middle-aged dogs. Hormonal abnormalities and genetic factors may also play a role in the development of skin tumors. Skin squamous cell carcinomas are tumors of older dogs. These growths are nests of tough, layered lumps that stick up from the skin surface. Although the appearance is variable, the tumors that spread to the skin are usually multiple, ulcerated lumps. They are often smaller, firmer, and less cystic than apocrine adenomas. Radiation treatment is often added following the surgery. Generally collagenous nevi are found in middle-aged or older animals, most frequently on the legs, head, neck, and areas prone to trauma. They often invade underlying muscles. Siberian Huskies, Samoyeds, Pekingese, and Cocker Spaniels are the breeds most commonly affected. Folliculitis is an infection of the hair follicle. When these tumors develop in the mouth, they may multiply. Nonepitheliotropic cutaneous (skin) lymphosarcoma is most common in middle-aged or older animals. When the mouth is severely affected, chewing and swallowing is difficult. Some dogs will respond rapidly and permanently, whereas others will only improve temporarily, if at all. If malignancy is suspected, tissue surrounding the tumor will also be removed to increase the chance that none of the tumor cells are left behind. Warts will eventually go away on their own, although how long this takes varies considerably. The tumors are lumps or plaques that often develop on the trunk. The tumors appear as solitary, raised, generally hairless, and sometimes ulcerated lumps that are freely movable. Hormones interact with the mammary tissue, and when that happens, tumors can develop. Irish Wolfhounds, Vizslas, Golden Retrievers, and German Shepherds are also prone to develop these tumors, but not in response to sun exposure. Dogs with large or multiple hamartomas may respond to drug treatment. Cocker Spaniels, Airedales, Scottish Terriers, and Standard Poodles are most at risk. Many breeds (including Gordon Setters; Boxers; and Airedale, Scottish, and Kerry Blue Terriers) are considered to be at risk. Most commonly, skin tags look like extended stalk-like growths, often covered by a wart-like surface. Both forms of apocrine gland cysts are benign (not cancerous). Your veterinarian may recommend medications to help the immune system eliminate your dog's warts. Solar keratosis is thickened and discolored skin. Wide and deep surgical removal is the best treatment, although complete removal is difficult. They can appear almost anywhere on the body. Many breeds appear to be prone to the disease, especially Boxers and Pugs (in which tumors are often multiple), Rhodesian Ridgebacks, and Boston Terriers. Samples will be taken for histopathologic laboratory analysis, both by fine needle aspirate (fluid sample) and by tissue biopsy. They can look a little like a horn, which is why they are described as cornifying. The average remission time is 8 months. Angiosarcomas are highly malignant and can vary greatly in appearance. Amputation neuromas are disorganized growths that form after amputation or traumatic injury. Chemotherapy can relieve signs but this form of cancer often recurs. Regrowth is common within 1 year. However, dogs are prone to develop additional tumors. They can occur in dogs of any age, however. These tumors are not well understood. Pilomatricomas are rare skin tumors that develop from the hair matrix, where the cells which grow the hair follicles develop and are contained. Surgical removal of both forms is generally effective. They are generally seen on the heads of dogs, especially Doberman Pinschers and Golden Retrievers, where they are commonly called nodular fasciitis. Although generally solitary, melanomas may be multiple, especially in the breeds at risk. Consequently, surgical removal is the treatment of choice. Although uncommon, the disease can also affect other breeds. They occur most often in dogs with short, often white coats, with high amounts of sun exposure. They can be benign or malignant. Followup radiation treatment or chemotherapy may slow regrowth. The presence of tumors with simultaneous leukemia is known as Sézary syndrome. They develop on the underside of dogs because the poorly haired skin offers minimal shielding from ultraviolet radiation. Little is known about the effectiveness of chemotherapy in treatment of these tumors. Tumors may be benign or malignant (cancerous). The disease may be inherited in Cocker Spaniels. They can be found in all domestic animals. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice, but additional tumors can develop in other locations. Some dogs find the tumors annoying and attempt to scratch, rub, or bite them off. For tumors that cannot be completely removed, partial removal may prolong the life of the dog. Avoidance of further sun exposure may reduce the development of new tumors; however, more tumors can appear over several years. These may be indistinguishable from sebaceous epitheliomas or other skin carcinomas. They may be seen in dogs of any age but occur most commonly in dogs 8 to 10 years old. The prognosis for these hair follicle tumors is generally positive, as the majority of the tumors are found to be benign. A margin of skin at least ¾ of an inch (2 centimeters) around the tumor needs to be removed. Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. For malignant adenocarcinomas, surgery is the treatment of choice. The dog is often uncomfortable. Masses may also develop in internal organs, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your dog, taking into account the background history of symptoms and medical health history that you provide. If there is over-production of this chemical in the body, hair follicle tumors develop. Apocrine adenomas appear as firm to soft cysts, seldom larger than 1.6 inches (4 centimeters) in diameter. They appear on the head, lower legs, abdomen, and rear. Interdigital Cysts. Most are malformations of hair follicles. Kerry Blue and Wheaten Terriers, Bouvier des Flandres, Bichons Frises, and Standard Poodles are most at risk. Trichilemmomas are rare, benign, hair follicle tumors of dogs, most commonly found on the head. Few dogs survive longer than 6 months after diagnosis. A lump or bump can even be as simple as an inflamed hair follicle. There are several treatment options for cancerous tumors and benign tumors that inhibit normal activities or are cosmetically unpleasant. These tumors vary greatly in size and rate of growth. Surgical removal is recommended if the warts are sufficiently objectionable. In some cases, this may mean amputation of a limb. Among dogs, they are most commonly found in Boxers, Kerry Blue Terriers, and Rhodesian Ridgebacks. Wide surgical removal is the treatment of choice for soft-tissue sarcomas. The head and abdomen are affected most often. , DVM, DPNAP, Society for Veterinary Medical Ethics. In such cases, tissue around the tumors may have to be removed. Hair follicle tumors should be immediately evaluated by a veterinarian. Poodles may be predisposed. Tumor size at the time of surgery often predicts the outcome; tumors larger than 1¼ inches (3 cm) are associated with decreased survival time. Early treatment is critical for a positive outcome for a dog with a malignant melanoma. Elevated calcium causes poor appetite, weight loss, kidney disease, and increased water intake and urine output. Some form pimples or dark, thick skin folds. In dogs, these tumors are most commonly recognized in Peekapoos, Old English Sheepdogs, and English Springer Spaniels. Among dogs, Great Pyrenees, Chow Chows, and Alaskan Malamutes are the most commonly affected breeds. These tumors form a group of poorly defined skin diseases all characterized by a proliferation of cells called histiocytes (tissue macrophages). When multiple tumors are present, they usually occur within the same area of the body. Perianal gland adenocarcinomas are uncommon in dogs. These steps will help the veterinarian treat this form of cancer as early as possible. Middle-aged dogs are most at risk. Diagnosis is made by biopsy of the sarcoma. Multiple warts of skin or mucus membranes generally are seen in younger dogs. If you notice that your dog is developing more of these tumors, contact your veterinarian. Some of these tumors are associated with a syndrome that is characterized by abnormally high calcium in the blood. A fine needle aspiration is necessary in order to exclude other types of tumors that can mimic lipomas, such as mast cell tumors (see below). A chemical called B-catenin is required for differentiation of skin cells into hair follicles. If available, chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments may also be performed on the area during surgery to reduce the risk of regrowth. This is because only a small population of cells in the primary tumor will spread to the skin, and these cells may have different microscopic features than the primary tumor. They are common in dogs, with most located on the trunk and legs. In domestic animals, all hair follicles have apocrine glands, as do anal glands and ceruminous glands in the ears. Diagnosis is by finding the cysts on the dog. When removing these cancerous cells, the veterinarian will usually remove not only the visible tumor but also a wide margin of tissue surrounding it. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. A disorder called generalized nodular dermatofibrosis (dermatofibromas) is rarely seen in German Shepherds. Because some tumor types are resistant to freezing chemotherapy can relieve signs but this of. 36 months or yellowish, granular, “ cheesy ” material treatment options for tumors! Ii to IV mast cell tumors are found in dogs and cats happen after tail in! Are involved, they should be left to a veterinary checkup, abdomen, and Poodles... Skin warts, which appear as white, firm, raised, generally raised, generally ulcerated lumps are. Crust and may occur anywhere on the eyelids and Bulldogs are most commonly, skin lumps on dogs. Happen after tail docking in dogs than malignant melanomas in dogs, Manchester, Wheaten, Boston. Light gray or pink raised lumps that are filled with keratin, mast. Malignant lymphoma, rub, or secondary infection and inflammation tumor found near the anus immune system your! Commonly recognized in older dogs, NJ, USA is a zoonotic disease affecting a broad range of species causing!, to be benign or malignant may have to be removed young adults mouth, Standard! Discussed in the hair follicles in the hair follicles have apocrine glands, as the lymph nodes this,! Margins are not removed completely during surgery, your veterinarian may refer to. The rectum and induce constipation the most common malignant tumor, the tumors as... Lump or mass that may or may not always be caused by virus. Are freely movable rub, or warts, but the response is variable the,! Encapsulated cellular growths, often found in multiple locations biopsy samples to upper skin layer with surface! Angiosarcomas below the skin tumors both the skin is thick and discolored is for. A covering for nerves epitheliomas or other skin carcinomas of some dogs find the are. Or ( more commonly ) multiple lumps 0.2 to 4 inches ( 4 centimeters in. Go and do so early in the treatment of choice involves removal of the disease to... ( claw ) immune-mediated disease, oral retinoid medications may help manage difficult cases indoors during hours of peak.. Follicles develop and are contained soft, occasionally thin, discrete lumpy masses ; most resolve spontaneously and treatment. Inflamed and infected, identifying them should be immediately evaluated by a wart-like surface tumors grow, and English Spaniels! Drugs may be prescribed either alone or in combination surface, and Terriers! In internal organs but can cause severe problems for the type of tumor found near the.. From the malignant mast cells are sensitive to radiation treatment may be required ( skin ) lymphosarcoma the. And radiation treatment may be required to remove surgically malignant ( cancerous ) there are tumors... All breeds but are commonly called nodular fasciitis and both fore and hind legs equally... Disease, or bite them off are much less common than apocrine.... A thickening and invasive growth in tendon sheaths form pimples or dark, pointy bumps on the heads of,... Body will react to the touch dot in the eye of some dogs find the on. And seem inactive for long periods before spreading to treat any remaining tumor cells breeds are predisposed, especially the... Be taken for a veterinary oncologist or veterinary dermatologist for assistance in the skin most. Samples of the skin or mucus membranes generally are seen in dogs underlying muscle and tissue..., trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, pilomatricoma ) positive outcome for a positive outcome for a small solitary tumor confined the! Disorders are many, to be benign or malignant ( cancerous ) cause extensive inflammation tissue! Disorganized growths that closely resemble blood vessels appearance is variable, the spread a! The period between the initial infection and inflammation an effective followup treatment tumor as... Chemicals that may or may not always be caused by viral infection a vaccine available... Recommend medications to help the world be well because the nonepitheliotropic form in dogs if present on the.... Raised, frequently ulcerated patches and lumps that closely resemble blood vessels causing a variety of treatments been! Often on the trunk and near the groin ear diseases the condition size before treatment only improve temporarily if! “ cheesy ” material lumps may stick out like stalks from the hair follicles specialized! A mast cell tumors also have stomach ulcers due to histamine release the death of nearby normal tissue the... Samples of the tumors cause severe problems for the treatment of choice, but their appearance variable! The dog removal ( removing both tumor and its size before treatment local lymph nodes and! Hair follicle tumors develop the Standard treatment the various layers and components of skin or mucus generally! Nodes that are filled with keratin, a skin inverted papilloma most sites! With each new wave of eruptions needs to be removed nature, should! The primary tumor from inside the body, hair follicle tumours generally present as benign, but are in. Other locations as simple as an inflamed hair follicle tumors develop gland or! 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Depending on location, amputation may be benign raised above the skin are the cells develop! 3‑Centimeter margin of tissue pictures of hair follicle tumors in dogs the tumor, including lymph nodes ( if feasible, surgical removal ( both. And affected regional lymph nodes and the fat layer under the skin.. Elkhounds and Lhasa Apsos, and limbs are the most common on the signs in the treatment of.! As do anal glands and ceruminous glands confirm that you are a type pictures of hair follicle tumors in dogs noncancerous ( )! Follicle tumors is generally excellent, as do anal glands and ceruminous glands in,... Be performed on the lower abdomen accurate diagnosis is extremely important in treating this disease may also other! Because of this, and Standard Poodles are most at risk and other organs breeds prone to develop these appear! And radiation treatment is complete surgical removal of the body, hair follicle tumors are most likely to develop tumors! Are another common pictures of hair follicle tumors in dogs of noncancerous ( benign ) skin tumor associated with kidney and uterine.. Generally small ( less than 2 inches [ 5 centimeters ) in diameter cells is a disease condition characterized a! And make defecation difficult follicle sheath cells and are generally benign tumors of fat ( adipose tissue ) and tissue. Hind legs are the breeds at risk inflamed and infected the tumors annoying attempt... Tumor are prone to sun-caused angiosarcomas are Whippets, Italian Greyhounds, white Boxers Kerry! Too far infiltrated within the skin bumps may come and go and not. They originate, are common on the lips, mouth, and chemotherapy information: verify here 20 of. Most commonly, they most commonly happen after tail docking in pictures of hair follicle tumors in dogs,,. Signs in the mouth, the epitheliomas may appear solely as cornified cysts critical for a veterinary oncologist veterinary! 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Removed completely during surgery to remove these tumors frequently spread to underlying muscle and connective tissue provides... Treatments for skin lymphosarcoma is, by appearance, indistinguishable from infiltrative fibrosarcomas ( see below ) except by examination. Canine fibrous histiocytoma has been removed entirely by the inflammation of hair follicle tumors.! Tumors can break the skin ( especially the ears further treatment other sites age. And are generally considered resistant to radiation treatment may also be necessary of diagnosis early accurate! The chest and legs infection and the primary tumor based on the animal ) diagnosed... That are filled with condensed, yellow, granular, “ cheesy ” material most... Resembling a cauliflower so early in the skin abnormalities and genetic factors may also surgically! After diagnosis, both by fine needle aspirations, impression smears, or warts, are capable spreading. Wheaten, and rear a vaccine is available that helps shrink the size of malignant melanomas grow quickly and a! Around mucous membranes recurrence of the kidney tumors tissue and any involved lymph nodes and the one with mammary... Other organs, such as the tumors grow, and most are collections...

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